Four percent of people admitted to the hospital will get an infection, increasing the length of their stay by 350% .
This represents 1.7 million people in the US  and 300,000 people in England (as a result of care within the NHS) 
The costs run into billions. Already overburdened hospitals are put under even greater strain and prolonged stays affect the wider economy as patients are away from jobs and families.
Reducing HCAI- What the Commissioner needs to know. (n.d.). Retrieved November 2, 2016, from https://www.england.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/10-amr-lon-reducing-hcai.pdf
More people die each year from infections they picked up in the hospital than from breast cancer or car crashes or diabetes .
In the US, as many as 99,000 patients die from HAIs every year ; 37,000 in Europe with number approaching 10,000 in the UK .
House of Commons Public Accounts Committee. (n.d.). Retrieved November 2, 2016, from http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200809/cmselect/cmpubacc/812/812.pdf
Preventing Healthcare-Associated Infections. (n.d.). Retrieved November 2, 2016, from http://www.cdc.gov/washington/~cdcatWork/pdf/infections.pdf
Rau, B. J. (n.d.). Hospital infections kill more people than car crashes. Here's how to cover them better. Retrieved November 02, 2016, from http://www.cjr.org/the_second_opinion/how_to_use_the_hospital_infections_database.php
Inpatients who catch an infection have their hospital stay doubled, from 8.1 to 15.8 days 
This costs US healthcare $35-88 billion  and the NHS, in the UK, more than £1 billion annually .
"If the incidence of HAI could be reduced nationally by 10% the NHS would save £93.1 million each year" 
2009 House of Commons Report
Catheter Acquired Urinary Tract Infections (CAUTI) are the single largest cause of hospital acquired infections today, according to both the CDC in the US and the NHS in the UK.
CAUTIs develop in many patients within days of catheter insertion and, if the duration of catheterisation is prolonged, then the chances of developing an infection increase dramatically.
It is common for bacteria biofilms to form on the catheter surface that then lead to inflammations and infections.
Amalaradjou, M. A. R., & Venkitanarayanan, K. (2013). Role of bacterial biofilms in catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) and strategies for their control. In: Recent Advances in the Field of Urinary Tract Infections. InTech. http://dx. doi. org/10.5772/46044.
Flores-Mireles, A. L., Walker, J. N., Caparon, M., & Hultgren, S. J. (2015). Urinary tract infections: epidemiology, mechanisms of infection and treatment options. Nature Reviews. Microbiology, 13(5), 269–284. http://doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro3432